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Monday

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Program Details

Walter Eich, Markus Flückiger
User stories and requirements engineering in agile projects

Full Day tutorial
Agile projects usually follow a different approach for requirements engineering than projects using other established processes like the Unified Process or linear processes. Requirements are not as much written down ahead of time but rather discussed just-in-time. Agile projects generally use user stories to manage the conversations that are going to take place. In this interactive tutorial, participants learn how to do requirements engineering in agile projects using user stories. After a brief introduction, participants will try out user stories themselves. Then they will use this common experience to gain deeper understanding of requirements engineering in agile projects. This allows participants to investigate into acceptance criteria, the definition of done, quality requirements, backlogs, and more. At the end, participants should not only be able to use user stories in agile projects, but be ready to discuss the fundamental principles of agile requirements engineering.

Walter Eich is a software engineering consultant and senior trainer with Zühlke Engineering in Switzerland. He has over 25 year’s professional experience in software development as developer, architect, project manager and coach. Walter’s professional interests include object oriented software development with the RUP and Scrum as well as agile requirements engineering for system and product development. Walter trains software professionals in the fields of RUP, requirements engineering and modeling with UML. He is also the responsible lecturer of a Certificate of Advanced Studies in requirements engineering at the University of Applied Sciences Bern. He holds a diploma in computer science from the University of Applied Sciences Bern and a Swiss federal diploma for adult trainers. Furthermore, he is certified RUP Instructor from IBM Rational and a Professional Scrum Master I from the Scrum.org.

Markus Flückiger is a usability engineering consultant and senior trainer at Zühlke Engineering in Switzerland. Markus works for more than fifteen years in various development projects as developer, usability engineer, requirements engineer, product owner and coach. As such he is building a bridge between stakeholders and developers, from the first idea until the finished product. Markus trains professionals in the field of usability and requirements engineering for Zühlke and teaches user centred design at the University of Applied Science in Bern. Markus holds a diploma in computer science of the ETH, Zürich and a master of HCI from Carnegie-Mellon University. He is author of two books published in German (“Usability Engineering Kompakt” and “Software entwickeln mt Verstand”).

Daniel Moody
The Physics of Notations: A Scientific Approach to Designing Visual Notations in Requirements Engineering

Full Day tutorial
Visual notations form an integral part of the “language” of requirements engineering: virtually all RE notations use diagrams as the primary basis for documenting and communicating requirements. Diagrams play a particularly critical role in communicating with business stakeholders (end users and customers), as they are widely believed to convey information more effectively to nontechnical people than text. Currently, RE visual notations are designed in an ad hoc and unscientific manner. Decisions about graphic representation are typically made in a subjective way, without reference to theory or empirical evidence, or justifications of any kind (design rationale). The majority of effort is spent designing the semantics of notations (what constructs to include and what they mean), with the design of visual syntax (how to visually represent these constructs) taking place largely as an afterthought.
While RE now has mature methods for evaluating and designing semantics of notations (e.g. ontological analysis, formal semantics), equivalent methods for visual syntax are notably absent. Currently, in evaluating, comparing and constructing visual notations, we have little to go on but intuition and rule of thumb: we have neither theory nor a systematic body of empirical evidence to guide us. The aim of this tutorial is to establish a scientific basis for visual notation design, to help it progress from a “craft” (as it currently exists) to a design discipline. It defines a set of principles for designing cognitively effective visual notations (summarised below): notations that are optimised for human communication and problem solving. The principles have been successfully used to evaluate and improve several modelling notations as well as to design visual notations from first principles.
Importantly, the principles are evidence based: they are not based on common sense and experience but on theory and empirical evidence from a wide range of fields. They also rest on an explicit theory of how visual notations communicate: only by understanding how and why visual notations communicate can we improve their ability to communicate. The principles provide a scientific basis for evaluating, comparing and constructing visual notations, which has previously been lacking in the RE field. A range of examples (both exemplars and counter-exemplars) are used to illustrate the principles, including some of the leading RE notations in practice.

Daniel Moody is Director of Ozemantics, a Sydney based information management consultancy firm and an Adjunct Professor in the Faculty of Business at the University of Twente (The Netherlands). He is recognized as one of Australia’s leading experts in data modeling and data management and has an international reputation in these fields. He holds a PhD in Information Systems from the University of Melbourne (Australia’s top ranked university) and has held senior positions in some of Australia’s leading corporations and consultancy firms. He has conducted consulting assignments in 12 different countries, covering a broad range of industries. He has also published over 100 scientific papers, been a keynote speaker 9 times and chaired national and international conferences. He was the inaugural President of the Australian Data Management Association (DAMA), former Vice-President on the DAMA International Board and is listed in Who's Who in Science and Engineering.

Massimiliano Di Penta, Alessandro Marchetto
Practical Experimentation Principles for Requirement Engineering

Half Day tutorial
Empirical software engineering is strongly establishing as a systematic way to objectively assess and compare software engineering methods and tools. In software engineering experiments are exploited, in particular, for assessing benefits of a particular methodology/method/tool, evaluating whether a technique is better than others, or particular characteristics/skills of developers influence the choice of the most appropriate technique and tool for a specific task. Experiments, however, require a very careful planning and execution, appropriate techniques to analyze and interpret results, and multiple replications to obtain pieces of evidence.
This tutorial aims at introducing the main principles of empirical software engineering, and at outlining, through several examples taken from our experiences and the existing literature, the various steps of an experiment. The tutorial is composed of two parts (i) a theoretical and by-example introduction to experimental software engineering (ii) a practical activity, in which participants will be actively involved in the design and planning of some experiments.

Massimiliano Di Penta is assistant professor at the University of Sannio, Department of Engineering, Italy. He received his laurea degree in Computer Engineering in 1999 and his PhD in Computer Engineering in 2003. His research interests include software maintenance and evolution, reverse engineering, empirical software engineering, search-based software engineering, and service-centric software engineering. He is author of over 140 papers appeared on journals, conferences and workshops. He serves and has served in the organizing and program committees of several conferences and workshops such as ICSE, ASE, ICSM, ICPC, CSMR, SCAM, WCRE, and others. He has been general chair of WSE 2008, general co-chair of WCRE 2008, and SSBSE 2008, program co-chair of WCRE 2007, IWPSE 2007, WSE 2007, WCRE 2006, SCAM 2006, STEP 2005. He will be program co-chair of ICSM 2012 and MSR 2012. He is steering committee member of ICPC, SCAM, CSMR, WCRE, ICPC, IWPSE, and SSBSE. He is in the editorial board of the Empirical Software Engineering Journal edited by Springer and of the Journal of Software Maintenance and Evolution: Research and Practice (JSME). He is member of IEEE, IEEE Computer Society and of the ACM. Further info can be found at: http://www.rcost.unisannio.it/mdipenta

Alessandro Marchetto is currently an assistant researcher at the Center for Information Technology (CIT) of the Bruno Kessler Foundation in Trento, Italy. He received his PhD degree in Software Engineering from the University of Milano, Italy in 2007. Since the end of 2006 he has been with the Software Engineering group at IRST in Trento, Italy. His primary research interests include quality, verification and testing of Software Systems and, in particular, of Web-based systems. He reviews papers for international conferences (e.g., ICSM, CSMR, WCRE) and journals (e.g., STTT, JSS, IET). He has take part to the organization of events such as: Web Maintenance and Reengineering (WMR 2005-2006), co-located with CSMR; 2nd Workshop on Testing, Analysis and Verification of Web Services and Applications (TAV-WEB 2006), co-located with ISSTA; 3rd Workshop on Web quality, Verification and Validation (WQVV 2007), co-located with the ICWE; 10th International Symposium on Web Systems Evolution (WSE), co-located with ICSM; the International Symposium on Software Testing and Analysis 2010 (ISSTA), and he is organizing the first Workshop on Empirical Requirements Engineering (EmpiRE), co-located with RE 2011.

Suzanne Robertson, James Robertson
Counting Bricks not Clouds

*** W I T H D R A W N ***
This half-day tutorial is about how the work done by business analysts can provide valuable input for managing projects and for making strategic decisions across projects. If the business analysis deliverables are in a consistent and understandable language then those deliverables can be used as input to value analysis, estimating, monitoring, prioritisation, response to change, task assignment, strategic project planning – to name just a few possibilities.
The workshop will cover topics like:

  • The future of business analysis as a wide communications tool
  • Building your requirements knowledge model
  • Establishing stakeholder ownership of knowledge
  • Making estimates from requirements knowledge
  • Requirements as units of decision-making
  • The future of requirements reuse

Suzanne Robertson is a principal and founder of the Atlantic Systems Guild - an organisation known for making good ideas in systems engineering more accessible. Suzanne is co-author of 5 books including Mastering the Requirements Process and Requirements-Led Project Management. Current work includes requirements discovery and management in both business and technical domains and how to involve the necessary wide variety of stakeholders. The product of this work is Volere, a complete requirements process and template for assessing requirements quality, and for specifying requirements. She has more than 30 years experience in systems specification and building. Her courses on requirements, systems analysis, design and problem solving are well known for their innovative workshops. She has varied experience as a manager, programmer, analyst, and designer. She has consulted, done research and taught in Europe, Australia, the Far East and the United States. Suzanne is joint author with her guild partners of Adrenaline Junkies and Template Zombies: Project Behaviour Patterns in 2008. The book recognises and defines patterns of project behaviour and is the Jolt Award winner, Best General Computing Book of 2008-2009.

As a principal and founder of The Atlantic Systems Guild, James Robertson is known for his work in implementing systems engineering principles that link business specialists with solution specialists. James is a consultant, lecturer, author, project leader whose area of concern is the requirements for software, and the contribution that good requirements make to successful projects.
James is co-author of 5 books including including Mastering the Requirements Process and Requirements-Led Project Management. He is also co-inventor of the Volere requirements techniques
His training as an architect has led to his work on good design principles and to his focus on how to integrate innovation into the jobs of requirements specialists. Current work includes developing heuristics for applying abstraction in order to understand and communicate the real business problem as distinct from the solution.
His work with his colleagues in the Atlantic Systems Guild led to the book Adrenaline Junkies and Template Zombies: Project Behaviour Patterns in 2008. The book recognises and defines patterns of project behaviour and is the Jolt Award winner, Best General Computing Book of 2008-2009.

Oscar Pastor, Sergio España
Model-Driven Requirements Engineering in Practice

*** W I T H D R A W N ***
A crucial success factor in information systems development is the alignment of the system with business goals, business semantics and business processes. Developers should be freed from programming concerns and be able to concentrate on these alignment problems. Model‐driven system development (MDD) not only provides a structured and systematic approach to systems development, but also offers developers the possibility of using model‐transformation technologies to derive models of a lower abstraction level that can be further refined, and even generate software code automatically.
This tutorial will show how to successfully integrate business process modelling (BPM), requirements engineering (RE) and object‐oriented conceptual modelling with the objective of leveraging MDD capabilities. Participants will work with state of the art modelling methods and code generation tools to explore different ways to match an information system with business requirements. The tutorial presents the principles, concepts and common practices of MDD, with a special focus on model driven requirements engineering.
You will be able to elicit and specify the requirements of an information system, including the following abilities:

  • To ask the proper questions in order to discover and disambiguate user needs.
  • To structure and organize appropriately the set of requirements into a business process model and a requirements model.
You will learn to create the object‐oriented conceptual model of the computerised information system, including the following abilities:
  • To systematically derive an initial conceptual model from the requirements model.
  • To complete the conceptual model in order to specify the software system considering both its static and dynamic aspects.
Also, it will be shown how to manage the necessary tools to support a model‐driven development that covers the whole lifecycle: from RE to software‐code generation. These include general purpose diagramming tools and conceptual modelling tools, as well as a state‐of‐the‐art model compiler that automatically generates fully‐functional source code from the conceptual model. In short, this tutorial offers a view on model‐driven RE; that is, how business process models and requirements models can be embedded in a complete MDD process. As a practical application a specific method and notations are explained, but the ultimate goal is that participants are able to apply this knowledge to their own contexts, to either industrial practice or academic research.

Óscar Pastor is full professor and director of the Research Center on Software Production Methods (ProS) at the Universitat Politècnica de València (Spain). He received his PhD in 1992. He was a researcher at HP Labs, Bristol, UK. He has published 200+ research papers in conference proceedings, journals and books, received numerous research grants from public institutions and private industry, and been keynote speaker at several conferences and workshops. Chair of the ER Steering Committee (SC), and member of the SC of conferences such as CAiSE, ICWE, CIbSE and RCIS. His research interests span conceptual modelling, web engineering, RE, information systems and MDD. He created the object‐oriented, formal specification language OASIS and the corresponding software production method OO‐Method. He led the research and development of the company CARE Technologies (founded in 1996), which has developed a state‐of‐the‐art MDA‐compliant conceptual model compiler named OLIVANOVA, a tool that produces a final software product starting from a conceptual model that specifies system requirements. He is currently leading a multidisciplinary project bridging the disciplines of information systems and bioinformatics, aimed at developing tools for interpreting and exploiting the Human Genome information from a conceptual modelling perspective.

Sergio España is MSc and research fellow at the Research Center on Software Production Methods, Universitat Politècnica de València (Spain). He has published in top RE and conceptual modeling conferences. He is member of the programme committee of several international workshops (e.g. ONTOSE, VORTE). His main research interests include information systems, conceptual modelling, RE, interface design, empirical software engineering and model transformations. He is co‐author of Communication Analysis, an information systems RE method that can be applied stand‐alone or within an MDD framework.

Brian Berenbach
Requirements Engineering for Contract Based Systems

*** W I T H D R A W N ***
Requirements elicitation and management for contract based projects is significantly more complex than for product or product line development. For example, many practitioners are unaware of the fact that the traditional “V” model for requirements tracing does not work where there is a legal contract describing project deliverables; nearly every aspect of requirements engineering is more challenging, from elicitation to risk analysis and compliance management. This technical briefing will describe in some detail contract issues that are typically not discussed in requirements texts and courses. Moreover, this session describes the unique nature of requirements engineering processes for contract based projects that may span multiple legal entities, e.g. the U.S. and Canada.

Brian Berenbach is a senior consultant with the requirements engineering competency center at Siemens Corporate Research, and is an ACM distinguished engineer. He has published widely on the topic of requirements engineering, and his book, Software And Systems Requirements Engineering: In Practice is currently in use in universities.

Juan .Pablo Caravallo, Xavier Franch
Use of Quality Models in Requirements Engineering and their Application on OTS Components Selection

*** W I T H D R A W N ***
The specification of quality requirements is crucial in order to deploy socio-technical systems. It is necessary to have available models and methods for the elicitation, validation, documentation and management of quality requirements. Among the existing types of models used by the community, quality models play a prominent role. A quality model defines a hierarchical set of quality factors and their relationships. Quality models have been largely used in several activities and in particular their applicability in requirements engineering has been studied by several authors.
In this technical briefing we present our methodological findings and lessons learned on the use of quality models in requirements engineering. The tutorial is divided into two parts.

  • Part I: General Concepts. In the first part, the basic concepts are explained and a particular proposal is chosen, the quality model proposed by the standard body ISO under id. ISO/IEC 9126-1. Then, we introduce the IQMC (Incremental Quality Model Construction) method for building quality models for software domains, and we present the extensions over the ISO/IEC 9126-1 that we have issued in our industrial experiences, with special attention to the treatment of non-technical quality factors. Finally, the use of quality models in the different requirement engineering activities is illustrated.
  • Part II: Application to OTS selection. In the second part, we focus on the use of quality models for driving Off-The-Shelf (OTS) component selection. In this context, we highlight the role of quality models as the shared ontology between stakeholders’ needs and OTS components’ features. Then, we pay attention to a particular type of OTS selection processes, namely call-for-tenders, in which different suppliers bid for a public offer. Last, we summarize the main lessons learned in the industrial cases we have carried out in the last years.

Juan Pablo Carvallo is the Director of the Software Quality Certification Center (CCCS) of the Pacific University of Ecuador and a part-time teacher of the School of Systems Engineering at the Universidad de Azuay, Cuenca, Ecuador. He has over 40 refereed publications in conferences, journals and books. His research interests include requirements engineering, hybrid systems architecture, and Off-The-Shelf (OTS) components selection, evaluation, and certification. He received his PhD in software engineering from the Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya (UPC).

Xavier Franch is Associate Professor in the Department of Service and Information System Engineering (ESSI) at the Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya (UPC). He is and has been a principal and co-investigator of several national- and EU-funded research projects. He is currently leading the GESSI group at the ESSI (http://www.essi.upc.edu/recerca-en/researchgroups/gessi), compound of more than 10 full-time researchers. He has over 100 refereed publications in conferences, journals and books. His research interests include requirements engineering, software quality and software architectures, among others.

Alistair Mavin
Easy Approach to Requirements Syntax

*** W I T H D R A W N ***
Stakeholder requirements are usually written in unconstrained natural language, which is inherently imprecise. During system development, any problems in stakeholder requirements inevitably propagate to lower-level requirements. A small investment to improve the definition of stakeholder requirements can therefore yield a big return.
Most authors of stakeholder requirements are not experienced requirements engineers. They are unlikely to want to learn a new or complicated notation. The Easy Approach to Requirements Syntax (EARS) provides guidance that is both quick to learn and easy to apply. EARS is a lightweight method that typically brings significant improvements to the standard of stakeholder requirements at little cost. The EARS approach draws on industry best practice and many years of experience. It is based on a set of structural rules that enable the expression of textual requirements in one of five simple templates.
During this technical briefing, the EARS notation will be explained and illustrated with examples. The briefing will give attendees a good working knowledge of the EARS templates, which will enable them to apply the templates to their own requirements. A laminated colour summary handout will be provided that can be used as an aid memoir when applying the EARS templates.
Intended Audience: Anyone who is an author or “consumer” of Natural Language requirements.

Alistair Mavin (Mav) is a requirements specialist with Rolls-Royce PLC based in Derby, UK. Prior to joining Rolls-Royce he worked as a requirements engineer at Praxis Critical Systems and within the Centre for Human Computer Interaction Design at City University in London. He has carried out systems engineering and requirements engineering projects in a range of industries including aerospace, defence, rail and automotive. He has experience in the development and delivery of requirements engineering training.
Mav has published many papers on systems engineering and requirements engineering. He contributed a case study chapter to “Scenarios, Stories, Use Cases – Through the Systems Development Lifecycle”, edited by Ian Alexander and Neil Maiden (John Wiley 2004). He presented an EARS tutorial at RE10 in Sydney, Australia and co-presented (with Ian Alexander) the tutorials “Developing Practical Scenarios” at RE04 in Kyoto, Japan and “A Better Requirements Process” at RE07 in New Delhi, India. He is a member of the British Computer Society’s Requirements Engineering Specialist Group committee and is chartered engineer.